Loftus lists "social contract theories, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, Kantianism, and John Rawls's theory of justice" as examples of how lofty secular ethics can be. He is attempting to show that Christians don’t have exclusive access to moral insight and the secular case isn’t built on an invisible sky-daddy but, hard facts. In reality, he is merely outlining how muddled secular views of morality can be because there is no standard by which to make value judgments. Of course the non-Christian will object by pointing to the commonalities shared by people whether evidential or biological but, we know that this explanation is deficient because not all people value the commonalities in the same way. Furthermore, people use these commonalties to justify conflicting actions.